Keep your Python code efficient

Computer system architecture:

Why not GPU as our main computing unit?

Python data types:


  • Tuples are immutable.
  • Tuples are cached in the Python runtime, which means there is no memory allocation request to the OS when creating a tuple.


  • Lists are dynamic and mutable.
  • When creating a list, the runtime request memory allocation from OS to allocate X size of memory.
Time of append and size of list with number of items in list


  • Dictionary is a collection of key-value pairs. The key must be a hashable object.
  • The complexity of insertions is similar to the previous types: O(1). But it is also dependent on the hashing function used. If it is slow to computer that will affect the performance. Comments in dictobject C implementation has more details on this.
  • Hash is calculated for the key.
  • Few bits are taken from the search hash and search starts. If the no hash is matched is found KeyError is thrown. If there is a match: search_key and found_key will be compared: if the they are not equal, a hash collision happens.
  • How python resolves hash collision? Another search starts again but with different fraction of bits until the keys are equal (please check perturb function in the C implementation). Then it will return the value.
  • If we are doing update or insert, the item will be inserted or overwritten.




Software Engineer. Data nerd. Machine learning enthusiast.

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Yasser Sinjab

Yasser Sinjab

Software Engineer. Data nerd. Machine learning enthusiast.

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